A Global Hub for
Sorghum and Millet

SMIL creates and supports food systems and entrepreneurial opportunities to reduce poverty and hunger in West and East Africa and Haiti.

SMIL conducts extensive research and develops new technologies to improve the resiliency of sorghum and millet production in semi-arid regions.

Through inclusive development, SMIL invests in the next generation of private and public leaders in sorghum and millet food systems.

Our national teams focus research on demand-responsive programming based on their intimate knowledge of local context and opportunities. The national teams work with global research partners, in-country technicians, farmer cooperatives, end users, newly trained leaders, and government officials to solve the most pressing agricultural and economic development issues.

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  • Dr. Moustapha Moussa
    So we consider the farmers as key partners and they have responsibilities in the implementation of the trial. Also, they are involved in the extension and adoption of those trials and technology coming in. Sometimes we travel and visit them in the field. And if we have a workshop, a meeting, we also invite them in. Like recently, when we have the SMIL annual review meeting, all of them came to Niamey and they have some lead farmers that were with us also at the meeting. And we exchange feedback, like their concerns and the challenges they are facing in terms of trying some of the varieties and what they have seen. We also give them some responses and also orientation about how to use those varieties in the field. 
    Dr. Moustapha Moussa
    SMIL Country Coordinator - Niger
  • Faith Bartz Tarr
    What really stands out to me is the local capacity development efforts that SMIL does, and then the engagement with stakeholders to make sure that information is being shared. So I really appreciate that SMIL is pairing American expertise and ingenuity with the best and brightest globally and training students in developing countries and the U.S. By doing that, we're ensuring that the next generation of food system leaders are equipped and empowered to address the food security challenges that we know are coming tomorrow as well. So I think that's one of the most inspiring things about the program is we're not only seeing results today, but we're building for better systems in the future.
    Faith Bartz Tarr
    USAID Agreement Office's Representative
  • Dr. Elisabeth Diatta-Holgate
    During my Ph.D., I had the privilege to be enrolled in a very competitive and prestigious program at the West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI). This opportunity was made possible through the funding from USAID/SMIL that provided me the resources to get trained, acquire knowledge and apply it while conducting research. Through the USAID/SMIL support, I was able to gain access to a professional network with scientists from across the globe. I was able to attend conferences, give presentations, as well as receive mentorship from other plant breeders. I also had the opportunity to be a visiting scholar at Purdue University, where I worked on part of my doctoral research activities and developed collaborations, which helped to start my career as a plant breeder after graduating. In addition, I was given the opportunity to co-lead a project immediately after graduation. Overall, the support provided by USAID/SMIL was the foundation and catalyst for my career as a plant breeder.
    Dr. Elisabeth Diatta-Holgate
    Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricoles

Sorghum and millet are resilient crops vital to vulnerable communities across the Sahel region and throughout Africa.

The USAID Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Sorghum and Millet is known as the Sorghum and Millet Innovation Lab, SMIL. SMIL is a continuation of INTSORMIL and supports research and development for smallholder farmers to increase sorghum and millet production while training the next generation of scientists and researchers within National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS).

With a partner network of universities and NARS, SMIL-supported students can pursue graduate studies in various disciplines, from plant breeding and genomics to agriculture economics, food processing and other fields. Nearly 100 students have received their academic training through SMIL since its inception in 2013.

SMIL plant breeding and production systems management projects focus on supporting smallholder farmers and farmer cooperatives to produce climate-smart sorghum and pearl millet crops adapted to ever-changing production environments. Food processing and value addition projects strengthen demand and markets. Women entrepreneurs are being trained to produce and market nutrient-rich food products targeting children and improved food staples for the broader local communities.

Sorghum & millet represent 70% of the caloric intake among these vulnerable populations in the Sahel region.

“In Senegal, and across West and Central Africa, sorghum and pearl millet are primary cultivated staple foods. In terms of the surface area of cultivation, they are the first crops that we cultivate in Senegal. Sorghum and millet are also staple foods in the region. These crops are important for women who are breastfeeding and in traditional dishes.” - Dr. Ndjido Kane, Senegal Country Coordinator.

“Our target is to create an opportunity for the farmers to have better sorghum and millet varieties that can withstand drought and various biotic and abiotic stresses in general. Because we want them to use that for a long period of time, or until they’re replaced by other varieties. We have to engage the farmers from the very start of the research. This helps them feel like they are part of the research and are more apt to adopt the technology. If we just do the research, and then after it's complete, we tell them to go back and plant the new variety, you may not see those varieties in later years as adoption will be lower. So, we want to make sure that we introduce the farmers to the technology in the beginning, so that’s why we engage them from the start.” - Dr. Alemu Tirfessa, Ethiopia Country Coordinator.

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Implementing Partners


Where We Work

The Sorghum & Millet Innovation Lab (SMIL) is headquartered at
Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas, U.S.A.
Our target countries are Ethiopia, Haiti, Niger, and Senegal.
Our research also impacts Burkina Faso, Mali, Togo, and the U.S.A.

SMIL Projects

January 11, 2022

Genetic Improvement of Sorghum for Resistance to Fungal Pathogens

Anthracnose is a widespread disease caused by a fungus that can have devastating effects on sorghum production. It occurs in numerous locations around the world, and is especially prevalent in areas of high humidity, including many regions in Africa and the southern United States. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and other regions often experience limited access to inputs and fungicide treatment options, leaving them especially vulnerable to anthracnose.
January 10, 2022

Seed Balls – Enhancing the Yield Effect in Pearl Millet and Sorghum and Disseminating the Technology in West Africa

Home to one of the harshest cropping environments in the world, the Sahel region of Africa hosts poor, sandy soils, low and erratic rainfall, and excessive soil surface temperatures. Sahelian farmers also often have limited space for cropping, very low incomes and restricted access to inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides. This combination of limitations makes it difficult for farmers to subsist on their cropping operations or produce enough to sell their crops for income.
January 9, 2022

Durable Adaptation to Aphid and Drought for Smallholder Sorghum in the Americas

Globally, there is great interest in applying new genomic technologies to accelerate genetic gains in developing country breeding programs. However, these methods have not been adopted in developing country level National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARI) due a mismatch between available genomic selection approaches and the existing operations of NARI breeding programs.
January 8, 2022

Expanding Markets for Sorghum and Millet Farmers in West Africa through Strengthening of Women and Youth Processors and Nutrition-based Promotion of Products

The focus of this project is on resilience of the Hub Food Innovation Centers as convergence points for product innovation and drivers of economic and nutritional impacts for Niger and Senegal. Hub Food Innovation Centers are being strengthened to better engage with entrepreneurs, improve their effectiveness as product development centers, and bolster their sustainability.
January 7, 2022

Enabling Marker Assisted Selection for Sorghum Disease Resistance in Senegal and Niger

Research collaboration between Texas A&M, INRAN, and ISRA extended to include researchers at nearby Universities in Niger and Senegal will result in the identification or creation of disease-resistant, locally adapted, sorghum cultivars that maintain properties preferred by farmers and consumers alike. Target diseases are anthracnose and long smut in Niger and anthracnose and grain mold in Senegal.
January 6, 2022

Genetic Enhancement of Pearl Millet for Yield, Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in West Africa (GENMIL)

Drought, disease, and insect pressure are key constraints for pearl millet production in West Africa. There is a recognized need for rapid advancement in the development of varieties addressing these constraints while taking into consideration farmer’s practices and market acceptability. This project is accelerating the development of a combination of pearl millet innovations to support sustainable productivity enhancement of the crop and ultimately increased food security and income generation for vulnerable populations in the West Africa.